Speak Your Mind, Literally

For most of us, speaking isn’t much of an issue. However, for those that suffer from paralysis, or other diseases that render them speechless, a new study to be published in Journal of Neural Engineering shows promise of translating neural activity into computerized speech, according to e! Science News. This is managed using a series of micro-electrodes that are placed atop the brain below the skull. These electrodes are non-invasive, and incredibly small—making them available for long-term use among these paralyzed patients.

The technology is certainly not perfect at this stage, but does show great effectiveness and promise for more accuracy with more research. The researchers from the University of Utah used these micro-electrons to track brain signal activity as patients read 10 different words. These words included yes, no, hot, cold, hungry, thirsty, hello, goodbye, more and less—though to be useful words for one who is paralyzed. They used the observed brain signal patterns to try to distinguish one word within a pair. This patterning lead to the researchers being able to “distinguish brain signals for each word 76 percent to 90 percent of the time.”

When they attempted to distinguish one word within the whole set of 10, accuracy dropped to a success rate of 28 to 48 percent—still much higher than chance, but not quite effective enough to allow someone to speak their mind effectively. The technology is there, but obviously needs to be improved, and will be if these researchers have their way about it—using larger micro-electrode grids in the future for better accuracy.

It seems great strides are being made to assist those suffering of paralysis and “Locked-In Syndrome” to access improved modes of communication, a very dire need. With more research and testing it seems that the researchers at the University of Utah will be on to something.

Source: The Brain Speaks on e! Science News

 

 

 

Memory – Not too Much, Not too Little

What happens if you cannot remember events? What happens if you remember too much?

Ordinarily memories change, deteriorate or fade away over time.  Imagine if time had not modified these memories. With a pleasant experience, recollection with vividness is desired. But what if it is a terrifying event?

Begin by understanding how memories are created and stored up. Then you can follow the steps laid down to help control your memories. First understand the scientific basis and then re-analyze the same concept in simple language.

How memories are formed and stored

When you experience an event, the information from your sensory organs is first sent to a little organic pulp in your brain called the thalamus. This information is processed and directed to two nearby areas called the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Once the information is sent it takes the amygdala just a split second to make a quick assessment. If this stimulus is considered dangerous, the body’s stress response is triggered. At the same time, if the prefrontal cortex (which is responsible for higher mental functions) decides that the threat is not serious, it instructs the amygdala to calm down. If the threat is perceived as real, then the prefrontal cortex allows the stress response to go ahead. In response to a perceived real threat your brain is in high alert. This stress response includes a raise in heart rate, blood pressure, tensing of muscles and several cascade of biological changes to prepare you for a fight or flight response, which throws you into a predator mode. That little bubble in your head suddenly explodes into fear and aggression.  Re-experiencing similar events can create an endless succession of events and can set off a vicious loop. People experiencing circumstances over which they have no control eventually become conditioned to thinking of themselves helpless even when circumstances change.

Memories are not permanent

Memory involves multiple pathways and connections of nerves and their effect on hormones. The bottom line is; memory is not an entity stored in a single place.  It is quite intriguing to even begin to contemplate how these feedback loops are executed let alone comprehend how all these areas of the brain are given their respective “roles”. There is a marvelous contingency plan built in an intricate cooperative venture. Even more mysterious is that when this loop is once formed this ‘pathway’ is somehow stored in a virtual memory bank. This loop is also dynamic. This means that it is changeable and allows it to be overwritten literally rewiring itself in response to the environment. In other words nothing is permanent in our memory bank.

Current prescription therapy

Now imagine that you are introducing a chemical (in the form of a drug) into your brain at one or more levels. How can you measure the innumerable effects of this chemical at different levels of the brain and its effects on the entire body? If you think psychotropic drugs were a great invention consider this fact; ‘despite advances in our understanding of mind and its illnesses, the current treatments leave patients no better off today than they did almost half century ago’.

Why popular psycho therapies have little success?

Common therapies involve desensitization with repeated stimulation or replacing one thought with another through self-control. But what if the next event that causes stressful memories is different from the last one? You customize treatment for each troubling experience, essentially becoming hostage to therapy clinics.

Putting it all together

With this basic understanding simplify the concept without the scientific terms: ….sensory information that is perceived as threat is sent to different parts of your brain and processed at different levels to activate your fight-flight response. If you re-experience a similar event, you are wired to reactivate this pathway but not in a threatening way. Over time, memories fade away and new pathways are made. This is a cooperative venture with various parts of your brain and other areas of your body. So no single drug or single therapy is effective. This is the essence of the entire process. If you are having problems letting go of the unpleasant memories the first impulse may be to run away from the issue or suppress the thoughts by using some prescribed drug or some therapy. As a society we are increasingly relying on drugs and therapies instead of looking into the core of the problem.

Action Plan

Step one

When there is an unpleasant memory of events the first thing to do is to not run away or resist the thought. Instead of rationalizing the thought process, be consciously aware of your mind and its effect on the body. Your heart may be racing and muscles tightening. Try to stay with it. If you are reading the entire article you will know that your reaction to the experience is biologically and environmentally wired to help you deal with various life events. Remember it is only a memory. When this memory or thought passes away watch the silence, the space between two thoughts. Abide in that silence for as long as you can. Be a witness to this entire process. Over time you will get to a point where you could oversee the whole forest while counting the branches. You will be a witness not a victim to the experience.

Step two

Once you understand the mind and its various effects on the body while laying down memories shift your attention to two more actions that will complement your effort.  We as humans operate on an inherent internal rhythm in relationship to everything from biological functions to emotional responses. The two important aspects that will help you in this process are restful sleep and rhythmic breath. Make sure you get enough sleep. The blankness of deep sleep is due to the lack of specific memories. Restful sleep has healing qualities. Regulate your Breath. Breathing is the bridge between our inner and outer selves.  It is the only major function of our body that is controlled by both the voluntary and involuntary nervous system. Other vital functions like heartbeat, blood circulation and digestion are all involuntary. In the initial stages of this evaluation and exercises if you do not see the desired effects, it is impulsive to think of yourself as having “depression” or an “anxiety disorder”. Resist the temptation to succumb to prescription drugs or therapies. Give yourself enough time to see the effects.

Here are few other activities that will immensely complement your efforts:

  1. Take a break from your using routine- go on a retreat.
  2. Try to be in the company of people who have a positive outlook in life.
  3. Most important – dedicate 5-10% of your time and/or money helping others. This is the most powerful of all the tools.